Key primary sources

A brief introduction to the key written sources and authors mentioned throughout this website can be found below, along with bibliographic references to modern English translations. Simply click on a header to learn more about the source.

Abu'l ibn Khordadbeh
Samarrai, Alauddin I., 'Arabic Sources on the Norse: English Translation and Notes. Based on the Texts Edited by Alexander Seippel in Rerum normannicarum fontes arabici' (Master's dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1959) [link to PDF].
Adam of Bremen
Tschan, Francis J., transl., History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, by Adam of Bremen (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959) [link to eBook (subscription required)].
Allott, Stephen, transl., Alcuin of York, c. AD 732 to 804. His life and letters (York: William Sessions, 1974).
Amin Razi
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Swanton, Michael, ed. and transl., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, rev. edn (London: Phoenix Press, 2000).
The following translation can be found online: Giles, J. A., transl., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (London: G. Bell and Sons, 1949).
Ari the Wise's Islendingabok
Grønlie, Siân, transl., Íslendingabók; Kristni saga. The Book of the Icelanders; The Story of the Conversion (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2006) [link to PDF].
Finlay, Alison, and Anthony Faulkes, transls, Snorri Sturluson. Heimskringla, 3 vols. (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2011-15) [links to PDFs of vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3].
Ibn Fadlan
Lunde, Paul, and Caroline Stone, transls, Ibn Fadlān and the Land of Darkness: Arab Travellers in the Far North (London: Penguin Classics, 2011).
The following translation of the passage concerning the Vikings in the Rus' can be found online: Montgomery, James E., 'Ibn Faḍlān and the Rūsiyyah', Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 3 (2000), 1–25.
Irish Annals
Online translations of the Irish Annals can be found here.
The Jelling Stone
Hermann Pálsson, and Paul Edwards, transls, The Book of Settlements: Landnámabók (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1972).
The following translation can be found online: Ellwood, Thomas, transl., The Book of the Settlement of Iceland (Kendal: T. Wilson, 1898).
Ohthere's Voyage
An online translation can be found here.
The Poetic Edda and Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda
Byock, Jesse, transl., Snorri Sturluson: The Prose Edda (London: Penguin Books, 2005).
Faulkes, Anthony, transl., Snorri Sturluson: Edda (London: Everyman, 1996).
Larrington, Carolyne, transl., The Poetic Edda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Orchard, Andy, transl., The Elder Edda: A Book of Viking Lore (London: Penguin Books, 2011).
Rimbert's Life of Anskar
Robinson, Charles H., transl., Anskar: The Apostle of the North. 801–865 (London: The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1921) [link to eBook].
The Royal Frankish Annals
Scholz, Bernhard W., and Barbara Rogers, transls, Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970) [link to PDF].
The Russian Primary Chronicle
Cross, Samuel H., and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor, eds and transls, The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text (Cambridge, MA: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1953) [link to PDF].
The Sagas of Kings
Andersson, Theodore M., and Kari E. Gade, transls, Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157) (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000) [limited Google Books preview available here].
Finlay, Alison, transl., Fagrskinna: A Catalogue of the Kings of Norway (Leiden: Brill, 2004).
Finlay, Alison, and Anthony Faulkes, transls, Snorri Sturluson. Heimskringla, 3 vols. (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2011-15) [links to PDFs of vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3].
The Sagas of Icelanders
Smiley, Jane, ed., The Sagas of Icelanders (New York: Penguin, 2001).
Viðar Hreinsson, ed., The Complete Sagas of Icelanders, including 49 Tales, 5 vols (Reykjavik: Leifur Eiríksson Publishing, 1997).
The Saga of the People of the Faroes
Faulkes, Anthony, transl., Færeyinga saga (Dundee: Thorisdal, 2016) [link to PDF].
The Sagas of Vinland
Magnus Magnusson, and Hermann Pálsson, transls, The Vinland Sagas (London: Penguin Books, 1965).
The Saga of the People of Laxardal
Kunz, Keneva, transl., The Saga of the People of Laxardal and Bolli Bollason's Tale (London: Penguin Books, 2008).
Magnus Magnusson, and Hermann Pálsson, transls, Laxdæla Saga (London: Penguin Books, 1969).
The following translation can be found online: Press, Muriel A. C., transl., Laxdæla Saga (London: J. M. Dent, 1899).
The Saga of the People of Orkney
Hermann Pálsson, and Paul Edwards, transls, Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney (London: Penguin Books, 1981).
The following translation can be found online: Anderson, Joseph, ed., and transl. Jón A. Hjaltalín and Gilbert Goudie, The Orkneyinga Saga (Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1873).
Saxo Grammaticus' Deeds of the Danes
Ellis Davidson, Hilda, and Peter Fisher, transls, The History of the Danes, 2 vols (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1979).
Friis-Jensen, Karsten, ed., and transl. Peter Fisher, The History of the Danes: Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, 2 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015). [limited Google Books previews of vol. 1 and vol. 2]
Skaldic Poetry
The website for the published volumes of the ongoing Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages project can be found here. The database for the project itself can be found here.
The Synoptic Histories
Driscoll, Matthew J., ed. and transl., Ágrip af Nóregskonungasǫgum: A Twelfth-Century Synoptic History of the Kings of Norway, 2nd edn (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2008) [link to PDF].
Kunin, Devra, and Carl Phelpstead, transls, A History of Norway and the Passion and Miracles of the Blessed Óláfr (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 2001) [link to PDF]. 
McDougall, David, and Ian McDougall, transls, Theodoricus Monachus: Historia de antiquitate regum Norwagiensium. An Account of the Ancient History of the Norwegian Kings (London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 1998) [link to PDF].
Widukind of Corvey
Bachrach, Bernard S., and David S. Bachrach, Widukind of Corvey. Deeds of the Saxons (Washington D. C.: Catholic University of America Press, 2014). 
The following translation can be found online (subscription required): Wood, Raymond F., 'The Three Books of the Deeds of the Saxons, by Widukind of Corvey, Translated with Introduction, Notes and Bibliography', unpublished PhD dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, 1949).
Wulfstan's Sermon of the Wolf to the English
An translation in *.doc format can be downloaded online here.
The Viking Age

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