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Index of Names

Abbreviation key:

The Vikings in England (Eng); The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland (ScIr); The Vikings in Wales (Wal); The Vikings on the Continent (Cont); The Settlement of the North Atlantic (NAt); The Vikings in the East (East); The Kingdom(s) of Denmark (Den); The Kingdom(s) of Norway (Nor); The Kingdom(s) of Sweden (Swe); Iceland (Ice); Norse King Case Studies (KingCS);

Rulers (Rul); The Role of Women (Wom)Farmers and Fighters (FF); The Town (Town); Historical Women Case Studies (WomCS);

The Runic Writing System (Run); Norse Mythology (Myth); Burial Practices (Bur); Skaldic Poetry (Poet).

Abu'l ibn Khordadbeh - An Arabic writer for first described the Rus' in an account written between 844–848. [East]

Adam of Bremen - Chronicler based at Bremen from c. 1066–1081/1085. [Den, Swe, Ice, KingCS]

Æsir - A family of gods, including Odin, Frigg and Thor. [Myth]

Agnar - The son and successor of mythical Gothic ruler Geirrod. A protégé of Odin. [Myth]

Ahmad ibn Fadlan - Arabic writer of the most famous account of the Rus', written after an encounter in 921–2. [EastWomBur]

Aidan (St) - An Irish saint who founded the monastery at Lindisfarne and was its first bishop. Died in 651. [Eng]

Alan Barbetort - Ruler of Brittany from 938, as duke from 942–952 after Brittany became a province of West Francia. [Cont]

Alan the Great - King of Brittany from 888–907. [Cont]

Amin Razi - A late sixteenth-century Persian geographer who made mention of the Rus'. [East]

Anarawd ap Rhodri - King of Gwynedd from 878–c. 916. [Wal]

Angantyr - A legendary king, the father of Hervor. [Wom]

Anglo-Normans - The political and cultural elite of England and Wales which developed following the Norman invasions. Can also be used of the English as a whole at this time. [Eng, ScIr]

Anglo-Saxons - The name for the Germanic (but non-Norse) inhabitants of Britain, whose ancestors had migrated from the areas south of Denmark in the fifth century. [Eng]

Anna - A Byzantine noblewoman. The sister of Basil II who was engaged to Vladimir the Great. [East]

Anskar - Archbishop of Hamburg from 831–c. 865. Missionary to the Swedes from 829–831, 848–850 and 854. [Den, Swe]

Anund - A king of the Svear who was exiled among the Danes shortly before 852. [Swe]

Anund Jakob - King of Sweden from 1022–c. 1050 (definitely not ruling by 1060). [Swe]

Ari the Wise - A twelfth-century Icelandic priest who penned the earliest surviving history of Iceland, Islendingabok. [NAt, Ice]

Asser of St David's - A monk from St David's in Wales who joined the court of King Alfred the Great and wrote a biography of the ruler. [Wal]

Astrid - The daughter of Sven Forkbeard and mother of Sven Astridsson. [Den]

Astrid - A daughter of Olaf Skotkonung, eloped with Olaf Haraldsson. [Swe]

Athelbald - King of Wessex from 855–860. Elder brother of Alfred the Great. [Eng]

Athelflad - The Lady of Mercians. The daughter of Alfred the Great, governed Mercia following the death of her husband, Athelred of Mercia. [EngWomCS]

Athelred - King of Wessex from 865–871. Elder brother of Alfred the Great. [Eng]

Athelred of Mercia - Ruled Mercia as a vassal of Wessex in the late ninth and early tenth century. [WomCS]

Athelred the Unready - King of the England from 978–1013 and 1014–1016. [Eng, Cont, Den, Nor, KingCS, WomCS]

Athelstan - King of the Anglo-Saxons from c. 924–939. Conquered Danish Northumbria. Possible foster-father of Hakon the Good. [Eng, Nor]

Athelwulf - King of Wessex from 839–858. Father of Alfred the Great. [Eng]

Audumla - A cow formed from cosmic frost who brought forth the first man. [Myth]

Balder - A son of Odin and the fairest of the gods. Accidentally killed by the blind god Hod due to Loki's schemes. [MythBur]

Basil II Porphyrogenitus - . Byzantine Emperor from 976–1025. [East]

Beorhtwulf - King of Mercia from c. 839–852. [Eng]

Beothuk - The indigenous inhabitants of Newfoundland. [NAt]

Beowulf - The protagonist of an Old English poem of the same name. He hailed from southern Sweden. [Swe]

Bestla - A giantess whose union with Bor gave rise to the gods Odin, Vili and Ve. [Myth]

Bjorn - The king of the Svear during Anskar's first mission to Birka in 829. [Swe]

Bjorn Olafsson - The son of Olaf of Birka, exiled after his father's death by his uncle Erik the Victorious. [Swe]

Boleslaw - Ruler of the Wends from 992–1025. Often regarded as the first king of Poland. [KingCS]

Bor - The son of the first man, Buri, and father of Odin. [Myth]

Bragi Boddason 'the Old' - The earliest named skaldic poet. [Poet]

Bran map Onuist - Co-ruler of Fortriu, killed by Vikings in 839. Brother of Uuen. [ScIr]

Bretons - The Brittonic-speaking inhabitants of Brittany in western France. [Cont]

Brian Boru - King of Munster from 978–1014 and High King of Ireland from 1002–1014. [ScIr, WomCS]

Buri - The first man, licked from cosmic frost by the cow Audumla. [Myth]

Byrhtnoth - Ealdorman of Kent. Killed in battle against Viking forces at Maldon in 991. [Eng]

Byzantines - The Greek-speaking, medieval continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire. [East]

Carolingians - An alternative name for Franks, most properly used for the period from 751–987, when the Franks were mostly ruled by the dynasty of Charlemagne. [Cont]

Catla - A Swedish convert to Christianity in the ninth century. The daughter of Frideburg. [Wom]

Ceolwulf - King of Mercia (apparently with Viking backing) from 874–879. Foolish king's thegn. [EngWomCS]

Charlemagne - Ruler of Francia from 768–814, Holy Roman Emperor from 800–814. [Eng, Cont, Den]

Charles the Bald - King of West Francia from 843 and Carolingian Emperor from 875–877. [Cont]

Charles the Fat - Carolingian Emperor from 881–887. [Cont]

Charles the Simple - King of West Francia from 898–923. [Cont]

Conchobar mac Mael Sechnaill - Son of Mael Sechnaill and Gormflaith ingen Murchada. [WomCS]

Congalach Cnogba - High King of Ireland from c. 944–956. [ScIr]

Constantine II - King of Alba (the precursor to Scotland) from 900–943. Defeated by Athelstan at Brunanburh in 934. [EngScIr]

Cumbrians/Strathclyde Britons - The Brittonic-speaking inhabitants of an area of northeastern Britain stretching from the English county of Cumbria up to Glasgow. [EngScIr]

Custennin ab Iago - A contender for the throne of Gwynedd in the late tenth century who drew upon Viking support. [Wal]

Cuthbert (St) - A Northumbrian saint who was bishop of Lindisfarne from 684–686. An immensely popular saint in Anglo-Saxon England. [Eng]

Dal Riata - The Gaelic-speaking inhabitants of western Scotland. [ScIr]

Danes - A generic term for the Norse in the Viking Age itself, over time the term became associated with the inhabitants of southern Scandinavia. [Cont, Den, Nor, Rul]

Dicuil - A ninth-century Irish scholar who described a voyage to 'Thule', which may have been Iceland. [Ice]

Domnall mac Congalach - Ally of Olaf Cuaran in the 970s. Son of Congalach Cnogba. [ScIr]

Domnall ua Neill - High King of Ireland from 956–980. [ScIr]

Donnchadh mac Briain - King of Munster after 1014. Son of Brian Boru and Gormflaith ingen Murchada. [WomCS]

Dorset Culture - A palaeo-Eskimo culture which extended from northern Canada to Greenland when the Vikings first arrived on those shores. [NAt]

Dubgaill - The 'Dark Foreigners'. A Gaelic term for a Viking faction active in the Irish Sea in the ninth and tenth centuries. The base and origins of this group is unknown. [Eng, ScIr, Wal]

Dudo of Saint-Quentin - An eleventh-century Norman historian. [Cont]

Eadred - King of the English from 946–955. [Eng]

Eadwig - A son of Athelred the Unready and Alfgifu of York. Executed by King Knut. [WomCS]

East Franks - In 888, the Carolingian Empire was divided irrevocably. The territory bordering on Denmark was now East Francia, its inhabitants: the East Franks. [Den, Rul]

Edmund I - King of the English from 939–946. [EngScIr]

Edmund Ironside - King of England in 1016. Son of Athelred the Unready and Alfgifu of York. [EngWomCS]

Edmund the Martyr (St) - King of East Anglia from c. 855–870. Killed by the Vikings. [Eng]

Edward the Confessor - King of England from 1042–1066. [Cont, DenWomCS]

Edward the Elder - King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899–924. Extended the realm up to the Humber. [EngWomCS]

Eggther - The leader of giantesses, who will pluck his harp to portend Ragnarok. [Myth]

Egill Skallagrimsson - A famous Icelandic saga hero and skaldic poet. The protagonist of Egils saga. [Rul]

Einar Helgason - A poet who criticised Jarl Hakon Sigurdsson of Lade in verse for his lack of generosity. [Poet]

Einhard - An East Frankish (German) courtier of Charlemagne and chronicler of his life. [Town]

Emma of Normandy - A powerful player in eleventh-century Anglo-Saxon politics. Wife of Athelred the Unready and Knut the Great, mother of Harthaknut and Edward the Confessor. [Cont, WomCS]

English - Although often used interchangeably with 'Anglo-Saxons', the term only started to be used in the tenth century, after the English kingdom was unified. [Den]

Erik - A king of the Svear who ruled at some point between 829 and 852. [Swe]

Erik Bloodaxe - King of southwestern Norway from c. 931–c. 933. Ruler of York from 948–954. [EngScIr, Cont, NorWomCS]

Erik Hakonsson - Jarl of Lade and co-ruler of Norway (under Danish overlordship) from 999–c. 1014. [Nor, KingCS]

Erik the Red - The first settler of Greenland, following his exile from Iceland for murder. [NAt]

Erik the Victorious - King of the Svear c. 970–995. [DenSwe]

Erispoe - Vassal king of Brittany from 851–856. [Cont]

Erling Skjalgsson - Hersir and de-facto ruler of western Norway from the 990s until 1028. [Nor, KingCS]

Estrid - Obodrite princess who married Olaf Skotkonung. [KingCS]

Eyiolf the Foul - An Icelander killed by Erik the Red, resulting in the latter's outlawry. [NAt]

Eyvind Finsson - A prominent skald (poet) who lived in tenth-century Norway. [Poet]

Farbauti - A giant and the father of Loki. [Myth]

Fenrir - A huge wolf, the offspring of Loki, who will kill Odin at Ragnarok. [Myth]

Fingaill - The 'Pale Foreigners'. A Gaelic term for the Norse residents of Dublin in the mid-ninth century. [Eng, ScIr]

Finns - The Finnish-speaking inhabitants who mostly resided east of the Gulf of Bothnia. [East]

Franks - An umbrella term for the varied inhabitants of the Frankish Empire. More familiar to us as the precursor to the terms France and French. [Cont, Den]

Frey - A popular god of prosperity and member of the Vanir family of gods. [Myth]

Freyja - A fertility goddess and member of the Vanir family of gods. [Myth]

Frideberg - A Swedish convert to Christianity in the ninth century, described in the Life of Anskar. [Wom]

Frigg - A goddess of wisdom and the wife of Odin. [Myth]

Garm - A hound who will howl to portend Ragnarok. [Myth]

Gautar - The inhabitants of southern Sweden, now encompassed primarily by the regions of Östergötland, Västergötland and Småland. [SweKingCS]

Geirrod the Giant - A giant and one of Thor's many antagonists. [Myth]

Geirrod the Goth - A mythical Gothic ruler and protégé of Odin. [Myth]

Geirskogul - A Valkyrie. [Wom]

Germanic peoples - Speakers of the Germanic group of languages, which include Old Norse, Old English and Frankish. Not to be confused with the more specific modern definition of German/s. [Rul]

Germans - A term sometimes used for the East Franks, although in reality the term 'Germany' was not used for the East Frankish empire until after the Viking Age.

Gizurr the White - An early Icelandic Christian; a convert of Thangbrand. [Ice]

Gnupa II - Danish ruler of the Hedeby dnyasty in 934. [Den]

Gnupa Olafsson - Danish co-ruler of the Hedeby dynasty in the early 900s. Brother of Gurd. [Den]

Godfred - Danish ruler between 804 and 810. [ContDenTown]

Godwin - A powerful Anglo-Saxon noble in late Anglo-Saxon England. [Wom]

Gonzalo Sanchez - An obscure Galician count reputed to have defeated Gundered. [Cont]

Gorm the Old - King of Jelling from at least 936 to c. 962. [Den, KingCS]

Gormflaith ingen Murchada - A powerful player in tenth-century Irish politics. Married Olaf Cuaran, Brian Boru and Mael Sechnaill. [WomCS]

Gruffudd ap Cynan - King of Gwynedd from 1081–1137. [Wal]

Gruffudd ap Llywelyn - King of Gwynedd from 1039 and of all of Wales from 1055–1063. [Wal]

Gundered - A Viking chieftain who led an invasion of Galicia in 968. [Cont]

Gunn - A Valkyrie. [Wom]

Gunnhild - A Norwegian queen, married to Erik Bloodaxe and the mother of Harald Greycloak. Possible daughter of Gorm the Old. [WomCS]

Gunnhild Haraldsdottir - Sister of Sven Forkbeard, whose death in the St Brice's Day Massacre was used as a pretext for Sven's invasion of England. [Eng]

Gurd Olafsson - Danish co-ruler of the Hedeby dynasty in the early 900s. Brother of Gnupa. [Den]

Guthrum - Viking leader and King of East Anglia from 879–c. 890. [Eng]

Gyrid - A Swedish princess who married Harald Bluetooth in the tenth century. [KingCS]

Haesten - Viking leader who harried Alfred the Great's kingdom from 892–896. [Eng]

Hakon Eriksson - Jarl of Lade and ruler of Norway (under Danish overlordship) from c. 1014–1016 (with Jarl Sven) and 1028–c. 1029. In exile with Knut the Great in the interrim. [Nor, WomCS]

Hakon Grjotgardsson - Jarl of Lade in central Norway in the early tenth century. [Nor]

Hakon Sigurdsson - Jarl of Lade and ruler of coastal Norway from c. 970–995. [Nor, SweKingCSPoet]

Hakon the Good - King of southwestern Norway from c. 933–961. [Nor, Swe, Rul, FFWomCS]

Halfdan - Danish co-ruler in 873. Brother to Sigefrid. [Den]

Halfdan the Black - A semi-legendary king of Vestfold in Norway, the father of Harald Finehair. [KingCS]

Harald Bluetooth - King of Denmark from c. 962–c. 987. [Den, NorKingCS, Rul]

Harald Finehair - King of southwestern Norway from c. 871–c. 931. [NAtNor, IceKingCS, Rul, Poet]

Harald Greycloak - King of southwestern Norway from 961–c. 970. [Nor, KingCS]

Harald Hard-Ruler - King of Norway from 1046–1066. [EastDen, Nor]

Harald Klak - Danish co-ruler and ally of Louis the Pious from 812–813 and 819–827. [Den]

Harald Svensson - King of Denmark from 1014–1018. [Den]

Harold Godwinsson - A powerful Anglo-Saxon noble who became king of England in 1066 and was killed at the Battle of Hastings. [WomCS]

Harold Harefoot - King of England from 1035–1042. Son of Alfgifu of Northampton and Knut the Great. [DenWomCS]

Harthaknut I - King of Jelling in the second decade of the 900s. [DenWomCS]

Harthaknut Knutsson - King of Denmark from 1035–1042, King of England from 1040–1042. [ContDen, Nor]

Helgi - Danish ruler in the 890s. [Den]

Hemming - Danish ruler from 810–812. [Den]

Henry the Fowler - King of East Francia from 919–936. [Den]

Hervor - A legendary female warrior who bests the revenant of her father to gain his sword. [Wom]

Hiberno-Norse/Ostmen - The mostly Norse-descended residents of the Irish Sea zone included Mann and Dublin. Increasingly integrated into Irish politics, language and culture. [Eng]

Higbald - The bishop of Lindisfarne at the time of the Viking raid in 793. [Eng]

Hild - A Valkyrie. [Wom]

Hjalti Skeggjason - An early Icelandic Christian; a convert of Thangbrand. [Ice]

Hod - A blind god who accidentally kills Balder with mistletoe due to Loki's schemes. [Myth]

Horik I - Danish co-ruler from c. 813–827, sole ruler from 827–850 and co-ruler again from 850–854. [Den]

Horik II - Danish ruler from 854–864 or later. [Den]

Hoskuld - An Icelandic chieftain, the owner of Melkorka. [Ice]

Hrungnir - A giant and one of Thor's many antagonists. [Myth]

Hrym - A giant who will sail west to Ragnarok in a boat made of dead men's nails. [Myth]

Hugh of Shrewsbury - The Norman earl of Shrewsbury from 1094–1098. Killed during a raid by Magnus Barelegs. [Wal]

Hwyel ab Ieuaf - King of Gwynedd in 974 and from 979–985. [Wal]

Hwyel Dda - King of Dyfed from c. 904–950. Became king of Gwynedd in 942. [Wal]

Iago ab Idwal - King of Gwynedd from 948–979. [Wal]

Idwal Foel - King of Gwynedd from c. 814–842. [Wal]

Ieuaf ab Idwal - King of Gwynedd from 948–969. [Wal]

Igor - A Rus' king in the mid-tenth century, father of Sviatoslav. [East]

Ingigerd - A daughter of Olaf Skotkonung, initially engaged to Olaf Haraldsson and then married to Yaroslav of Kiev. [Swe]

Innu - The indigenous inhabitants of northwestern Labrador. [NAt]

Irish - The Gaelic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland. They never became a politically unified in the Viking Age, remaining divided into numerous small kingdoms. [Ice]

Isleif Gizurarson - The first Icelandic bishop of Iceland and son of Gizurr the White. [Ice]

Ivar of Dublin - Norse ruler of Dublin ousted in 902 and killed in battle against King Constantine II in 904. [ScIr]

Ivar the Boneless - Viking leader active with the Great Heathen Army. Sometimes (unverifiably) regarded as the son of Ragnar Lothbrok. [ScIr]

Jarl Ulf - Regent of Denmark from 1018–1026. Father of Sven Astridsson. [Den]

John Skylitzes - An eleventh-century Byzantine author. [Wom]

Kenneth MacAlpin - The first ruler of both the Dal Riata and the Picts between 843 and 858. [ScIr]

Kevin of Glendalough - A seventh-century Irish saint commemorated by Maen Achwyfan. [Wal]

Khazars - A semi-nomadic, Turkic-speaking people who lived north of the Black and Caspian seas. Their nobility purportedly converted from Tengri to Judaism in the eighth century. [East]

Knut the Great - King of England from 1016–1035, King of Denmark from 1018–1035. [EngScIrContDen, NorSweRul, WomCSPoet]

Kveldulf - A Norwegian noble and father of Skallagrim who came into conflict with Harald Fairhair, according to Egils saga. [Rul]

Laufey - A goddess and the mother of Loki. [Myth]

Leif Eriksson - The son of Erik the Red and purported discoverer of Vinland. [NAt]

Loki - The trickster god in Old Norse mythological sources. It is unclear if he was actively worshipped. [Myth]

Lordomanni - The name given to the Norse by the Spanish. It appears to be a corruption of 'Nordomanni', the Latin form of 'Northmen'. [Cont]

Louis IV - King of West Francia from 936–954. Raised at the court of King Athelstan in Anglo-Saxon England. [EngScIrCont]

Louis the Pious - Holy Roman Emperor (from 813) and Ruler of Francia from 814–840. [Den]

Mael Morda mac Murchada - King of Leinster from 1003–1014. [ScIrWomCS]

Mael Sechnaill mac Domnall - King of Mide (aka Meath) from 976–1022 and High King of Ireland from 980–1002. [ScIrWomCS]

Magni - A son of Thor. [Myth]

Magnus Barelegs - King of Norway from 1093–1103. Spent large parts of his reign in the British Isles and Ireland, where he was killed. [Wal]

Magnus II of Norway - Son of Harald Hard-Ruler and king of Norway from 1066–1069. Previously active in the British Isles. [Wal]

Magnus the Good - King of Norway from 1035–1047. [EastDen, NorWomCS]

Maredudd ab Owain - King of Gwynedd from 986 and also of Deheubarth from 988–c. 999. [Wal]

Melkorka - An Irish princess captured by Vikings and sold into slavery in Iceland. [Ice]

Merfyn Frych - King of Gwynedd from 825–844. [Wal]

Mistivoj - Prince of the Obodrite Slavs from around 965 to 995. [KingCS]

Modi - A son of Thor. [Myth]

Murchad mac Finn - King of Leinster from c. 966–972. [ScIrWomCS]

Myrkjartan (Muirchertach) - An Irish king, the father of Melkorka. [Ice]

Nidhogg - A dark dragon who will be glimpsed in the new world following Ragnarok. [Myth]

Normans - Residents of Normandy. The descendants of Viking raiders. Invaded England in 1066. [WalCont]

Norse - An umbrella-term for all speakers of the Norse language and adherents of Norse cultural practices: originally the inhabitants of Scandinavia, in the Viking Age they spread throughout Western Europe, Russia and the North Atlantic. [NAt]

Northmen - A generic term for the Norse in the early Viking Age which became particularly associated with its northwestern inhabitants (later called Norwegians). [Eng, Cont]

Norwegians - An umbrella term for the Norse inhabitants of northwestern Scandinavia. More appropriately used for the subjects of the unified Norwegian kingdom. [Cont]

Obrodites - A confederation of West Slavic tribes which lived to the southeast of the Danish peninsula. [DenKingCS]

Odin - The most prominent god in Norse sources. An ambiguous character associated with lordship and poetry. [Wom, RunMyth]

Odo of Paris - A count of Paris who deposed Charles the Fat in 887. King of West Francia from 888–898. [Cont]

Ohthere - North Norwegian chieftain and sailor who made a report to Alfred the Great at some point between 871 and 899. [Den, Nor]

Olaf - Danish ruler (of Swedish origin) and founder of the Hedeby dynasty in the 890s. [Den]

Olaf Cuaran - Co-ruler of York from 941–944 and 947–952. King of Dublin from 945–947 and 952–980. Member of the Ui Imair dynasty (descendants of Ivar the Boneless). [EngScIrWomCS]

Olaf Guthfrithsson - King of Dublin from 934–939. Ruler of York from 939–941. [Eng]

Olaf Haraldsson - King of Norway from 1016–1028. [ContEastDen, Nor, Swe, KingCSRulWomCS]

Olaf of Birka - The brother of Erik the Victorious and king of Birka in the late tenth century. [Swe]

Olaf of the Svear - The king of the Svear during Anskar's second mission to Birka in 852. [Swe]

Olaf Peacock - An famous Icelandic chieftain, the son of Melkorka. [Ice]

Olaf Skotkonung - King of the Svear and the Gautar (possibly concurrently) between c. 995 and 1022. [Den, Nor, Swe, KingCS]

Olaf the White - Husband of Aud the Deep-Minded and ruler of Dublin after 853. [Ice]

Olaf Tryggvason - King of coastal Norway from 995–999. [EngEastNor, Swe, KingCS]

Oleg (Helgi) Riurikid - Son of Riurik and his successor as king of the Rus' after 879. [East]

Olga - A Rus' Queen (wife of King Igor and mother of Sviatoslav) who converted to Christianity in 957. [East]

Onuist map Uurguist - King of Fortriu from 820–834. [ScIr]

Otto I - Ruler of East Francia from 936–973. Holy Roman Emperor from 962–973. [Den]

Otto II - Ruler of East Francia from 961–983. Holy Roman Emperor from 973–983. [Den, KingCS]

Owain ap Hwyel Dda - King of Dyfed from 950–988. [Wal]

Pallig - Husband of Gunnhild Haraldsdottir, whose death in the St Brice's Day Massacre was used as a pretext for Sven Forkbeard's invasion of England. [Eng]

Picts - The enigmatic inhabitants of eastern Scotland. Their language is unknown but was probably Brittonic. Their most well-known kingdom was called Fortriu. [ScIr]

Poppo - German missionary who converted Harald Bluetooth in c.965. [Den, KingCS]

Ragnar Lothbrok - A semi-legendary Viking warrior reputed to have conquered Paris in 845. His death in Northumbria in the 850s supposedly triggered the invasion of the Great Heathen Army. [EngScIrCont, Poet]

Ramiro of Asturias - King of Asturias in Spain from 842–850. [Cont]

Ran - A goddess of the sea whose name appears in kennings in skaldic poetry. [Poet]

Reginfred - Danish co-ruler from 812–813. Brother of Harald Klak. [Den]

Rhodri Mawr - King of Gwynedd from 844–878. [Wal]

Rhys ap Tewdwr - King of Deheubarth until being killed by the Normans in 1093. [Wal]

Rimbert - The author of the Life of Anskar and Anskar's successor to the Archbishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. [Town]

Riurik (Hroerek) - Purportedly the first ruler of the Rus' from c. 862–879. Founder of the Riurikid dynasty. [East]

Rognvald - Jarl of Møre and subsequently Orkney in the early tenth century. [NAt]

Rollo of Normandy - A Viking leader who settled in northwestern Francia and created the Duchy of Normandy, governing from 911 until at least 928. [ContWomCS]

Ruaidri ua Cannanain - King of Cenel Conaill from no later than 943 until 950. [ScIr]

Rus' - The name for Norse settlers along the Dnieper and Volga rivers. Ancestor of the term 'Russia'. [East]

Saloman - King of Brittany from 856–874. [Cont]

Scots - Originally a Latin word for Gaelic speakers as a whole, the term became associated with Scotland after the Viking Age due its Gaelic-speaking rulers. [Eng]

Sif - A goddess of plenty, and the wife of Thor. [Myth]

Sigefrid - Danish co-ruler in 873. Brother to Halfdan. [Den]

Sigfred - Danish ruler between 777 and 798. [Den]

Sigmund Brestison - A Faroese Christian renowned for his conflict with Thrand of Gota. [NAt]

Sigtrygg Gnupasson - Danish ruler of the Hedeby dynasty before 916. [Den]

Sigurd Hakonsson - Jarl of Lade in central Norway in the mid-tenth century. [Nor]

Sigurd Sow - A petty king of Ringerike, Norway, in the early eleventh century. Stepfather of Olaf Haraldsson. [Nor]

Sigvat Thordarson - A prominent Icelandic skald who composed for a number of kings, including Knut the Great, in the early eleventh century. [Poet]

Sihtric Caech - King of Dublin from 917–920, King of York from 921-927. Member of the Ui Imair dynasty (descendants of Ivar the Boneless). [ScIr]

Sihtric Silkenbeard - King of Dublin from as early as 989 until 936. [ScIrWomCS]

Sisnando Menendez - Bishop of Iria-Flavia in Galicia from 952 until 968, when he was killed by Vikings led by Gundered. [Cont]

Skallagrim Kveldulfsson - An early Norwegian settler of Iceland and the father of Egill Skallagrimsson according to Egils saga. [Rul]

Skraelings - A term used by the Norse for the indigenous peoples they encountered in Greenland and Vinland. [NAt]

Slavs - The Slavic-speaking inhabitants of central and eastern Europe. [East]

Sleipnir - Odin's eight-legged horse. The child of Loki who conceived him while in the form of a mare. [Myth]

Snorri Sturluson - A thirteenth-century Icelandic chieftain best known for his literary works, the Prose Edda and Heimskringla. [SweIceMythBur]

Snorri Thorfinsson - The first known European to be born in America. [NAt]

Styrbjorn - A contender for the Swedish throne. Brother of Gyrid and brother-in-law of Harald Bluetooth. [KingCS]

Surt - A giant who will travel to Ragnarok from the south with a flaming sword. [Myth]

Svadilfari - A magnificent horse used by a giant to construct Asgard. Seduced by Loki in the form of a mare. [Myth]

Svear - The inhabitants of the Lake Mälaren region of central Sweden, now encompassed primarily by the regions of Uppland, Västmanland and Södermanland. [Swe, KingCS]

Sven Astridsson - King of Denmark from 1047–1076. [DenNorKingCS]

Sven Forkbeard - King of Denmark from c. 987–1014, King of England from 1013–1014. [EngDenNorSwe, KingCSWomCS]

Sven Hakonsson - Jarl and co-ruler of Norway (under Danish overlordship) from 999–1016. [Nor]

Sven Knutsson - Co-ruler of Norway from 1030–1035. Son of Alfgifu of Northamption and Knut the Great. [NorWomCS]

Sviatoslav - King of the Rus' from 943–972, father of Vladimir the Great. [EastWom]

Swedes - An umbrella term for the Norse inhabitants of eastern Scandinavia. More appropriately used for the subjects of the unified Swedish kingdom. [Rul]

Swietoslava - A Polish princess who married Erik the Victorious of the Svear in 983 or 984. [Den, Swe]

Thangbrand - A controversial German missionary dispatched to Iceland by Olaf Tryggvason. [Ice]

Thietmar of Merseburg - An eleventh-century German historian and Prince-Bishop of Merseburg. [Swe]

Thjalfi - Thor's servant. [Myth]

Thor - A popular Norse god associated with lower-class members of society. [Run, Myth]

Thora - Obodrite princess, daughter of Prince Mistivoj and wife of Harald Bluetooth. [KingCS]

Thorbjorn Horncleaver - A skaldic poet who composed for Harald Finehair. [Poet]

Thorgeir Thorkelsson - A pagan Icelandic lawspeaker who persuaded the Icelandic Althing to convert to Christianity in c. 1000. [Ice]

Thorleif Ruadfeldarson - A skaldic poet who composed for Jarl Hakon Sigurdsson of Lade in the late tenth century. [Poet]

Thorolf Kveldulfsson - A Norwegian noble and brother of Skallagrim who entered the retinue of Harald Fairhair, according to Egils saga. [Rul]

Thorstein Olafsson - Son of Aud the Deep-Minded and Olaf the White, killed in the British Isles. [Ice]

Thorvald Eriksson - The son of Erik the Red and brother of Leif Eriksson. The first known European to die in America. [NAt]

Thrand of Gota - A pagan chieftain in the Faroes renowned for his conflict with Sigmund Brestison. [NAt]

Thrud - The daughter of Thor. [Myth]

Thrym - A giant and one of Thor's many antagonists. [Myth]

Thule Culture - A palaeo-Inuit culture which replaced the Dorset Culture in northern Canada and Greenland in around the fourteenth century. [NAt]

Thyra - Danish princess. Sister of Sven Forkbeard who eloped with Olaf Tryggvason. [KingCS]

Thyrvi - The wife of Gorm the Old, possibly from an eastern Danish dynasty. [DenKingCS]

Unn/Aud the Deep-Minded - One of the earliest settlers of Iceland, transplanting her household there from the British Isles in the late ninth century. [IceWom, FF]

Uuen map Onuist - Co-ruler of Fortriu, killed by Vikings in 839. Brother of Bran. [ScIr]

Vafthrudnir - An all-powerful giant with whom Odin enters a high-stakes contest to gain wisdom. [Myth]

Vanir - A family of gods, including Frey and Freyja. [Myth]

Varangians - Mostly Norse (and later Anglo-Saxon) soldiers of fortune who comprised the bodyguard of the Byzantine Emperor. [EastNor]

Ve - A brother of Odin and son of Bestla. [Myth]

Vidar - Odin's youngest son, who will avenge him at Ragnarok. [Myth]

Vikings - A term used for raiders of mostly Scandinavian origin who were active in the British Isles, Ireland and Europe in the ninth to eleventh centuries. [EngScIrWal, ContNAtEast, DenNorSwe, IceKingCS]

Vili - A brother of Odin and son of Bestla. [Myth]

Vladimir the Great - Ruler of the Kievan Rus' from 980–1015. [East, Nor]

Volga Bulghars - Turkic inhabitants of the land north of the Black Sea. [East]

Welsh - The Brittonic-speaking inhabitants of the Welsh kingdoms. The term derives from an Old English word meaning 'foreigner'. [Wal]

Wends - A term used generically for the Slavic inhabitants of the lands west of Saxony and East Francia. [KingCS]

West Franks/French - The inhabitants of the Kingdom of France, which evolved from Western Francia after the split in 888. 

Widukind - Saxon chieftain who took refuge with the Danish king Sigfred in 777. [Den]

Widukind of Corvey - Saxon chronicler writing between 962 and 973. [DenKingCS]

William of Malmesbury - A twelfth-century English historian. [WomCS]

William the Conqueror - The Duke of Normandy who invaded England in 1066, ruling until 1087. [ContDenWomCS]

Wilzes - A group of West Slavic tribes living to the east of the Obodrites. [Den]

Yaropolk - A short-lived ruler of the Rus', supplanted by his brother Vladimir in 980. [East]

Yaroslav the Wise - Ruler of the Kievan Rus' from 1019–1054. [East, NorSwe,]

Ymir - The first being, an enormous giant who brought forth the race of giants and from whose body the world is formed. [Myth]

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